26 Types of Drawings… or the many ‘faces’ of a line
Drawing is the art, process, the technique of representing an object, scene, or idea by means of lines on a surface.
BY BEA MARTIN
The term drawing is applied to works that vary greatly in technique. It has been understood in different ways at different times and is difficult to define. During the Renaissance the term ‘disegno’ implied drawing both as a technique to be distinguished from colouring and also as the creative idea made visible in the preliminary sketch.
The Shorter Oxford Dictionary defines drawing as:
‘the formation of a line by drawing some tracing instrument from point to point of a surface; representation by lines; delineation as distinguished from painting…the arrangement of lines which determine form.’
Despite this insistence on the formation of line and the implied lack of colour, few would deny that a work formed by dots or shading or wholly in line but in a range of colours is a drawing.
Here are 26 type of drawings… or 26 different expressions a line can play on a surface:
1 Analytical drawing
Analytical drawing relates to the drawing of lines to represent the three-dimension structure and geometry of a form, proceeding generally from the whole to constituent parts.
Analytique is an elevation drawing of a façade, surrounded by a decorative arrangement of drawings of important details and sometimes a plan or section of the façade.
3 Axonometric drawing
Axonometric is a paraline drawing of an axonometric projection, having all lines parallel to the three principal axes drawn to scale but diagonal and curved lines distorted.
4 Cabinet drawing
Cabinet drawing is a paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having all lines parallel to the picture plane drawn to exact scale, and the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane reduced to half scale.
A cartoon is a full-scale drawing of a motif or design, to be transferred in preparation for a fresco, mosaic, or tapestry.
6 Cavalier drawing
Cavalier drawing is a paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane.
7 Conception drawing
Conception is a drawing of something that does not exist yet.
8 Construction drawings
Construction drawings, also called contract drawings or working drawings, are the portion of the contract documents showing in accurate graphic or pictorial form the design, location, dimensions, and relationships of the elements of a project.
9 Contour drawing
Contour drawing is a technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject, without shading or modelling of form.
Cutaway is a drawing or model having an outer section removed to display the interior.
11 Design drawing
Design drawing is any of the drawings made to aid in the visualisation, exploration, and evaluation of a concept in the design process.
Drafting or mechanical drawing is a drawing done with the aid of such instruments as T-squares, triangles, compasses, and scales, specifically for the systemic representation and dimensional specification of architectural and engineering structures.
Épure is a full-scale, detailed drawing done on a wall, floor, or other large surfaces, from which are traced the patterns for various building elements.
Esquisse is a sketch showing the general features of a design or plan.
15 Freehand drawing
Freehand drawing is the art, process, or technique of drawing by hand without the aid of drafting tools or mechanical devides, in order to represent or visualise an idea.
16 Cross-contour drawing
Cross-contour drawing is the technique of drawing lines to represent a series of cuts across the surface of a form rather than its edges.
17 Gesture drawing
Gesture drawing is a technique of drawing a single or multiple lines freely and quickly as a subject is visualised and perceptions of volume, mass, movement, and significant details are projected onto the drawing surface.
18 Oblique drawing
Oblique drawing is a paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having all lines and faces parallel to the picture plane drawn to exact scale, and all receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane shown at any convenient angle other than 90° sometimes at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion.
19 Paraline drawing
Paraline drawing relates to any of various single-view drawings characterised by parallel lines remaining parallel to each other rather than converging as in linear perspective.
20 Perspective drawing
Perspective relates to any of various techniques for representing three-dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional surface as they might appear to the eye.
21 Presentation drawing
Presentation drawings are any of a set of design drawings made to articulate and communicate a design concept or proposal, as for exhibition, review, or publication.
Rendering is a drawing, specifically a perspective, of a building or interior space, artistically delineating materials, shades, and shadows, usually done for the purpose of presentation and persuasion.
A sketch is a simply or hastily executed drawing representing the essential features of an object or scene without the details often made as a preliminary study.
24 Study drawing
A study, sometimes referred as a referential drawing, is a drawing executed as an educational exercise, produced as a preliminary to a final work, or made to record observations.
25 Tromp l’oeil
Tromp l’oeil is a drawing in which objects are rendered in extremely fine detail to emphasize the illusion of tactile and spatial qualities.
Vignette is a drawing that is shaded off gradually into the surrounding paper as to leave no definite line at the border